Suspected contamination source: Unknown (Lerner, 2016)
Water sampling from the Flint River, based on samples of surface water and fish, showed elevated levels of PFASs. The maximum level of PFOA detected was 1,309 ppt. The maximum level of PFOS detected was 410 ppt. Eleven other PFASs were also detected, these include PFBA, PFHxS and PFNA. Information on the massive Flint, MI drinking water crisis can be found here.